Road To Rehab is a searchable directory which includes more than 16,000 drug rehab programs, including longterm residential drug treatment, out-patient treatment; detox facilities for drug addiction and alcoholism, and drug rehab for specific types of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, ecstasy, marijuana, methamphetamine and prescription drug abuse.
One World Counseling Brooklyn, New York, United States One World Counseling provides a comprehensive 07-31-2013
Latino Treatment Center Elgin, Illinois, United States Latino Treatment Center provides alcohol, 06-10-2013
Sober Living America Atlanta, Georgia, United States Sober Living America is a non-profit 501(c) 3 05-23-2013
Daemion Counseling Center Berwyn, Pennsylvania, United States Daemion Counseling Center provides short-term and 02-14-2013
The Agora House for Men Gainesville, Georgia, United States Affordable residential treatment center combating 06-06-2012
Alcohol Treatment Centers Alaska , Alabama , Arkansas , Arizona , California , Colorado , Connecticut , District of Columbia , Delaware , Florida , Georgia , Hawaii , Iowa , Idaho , Illinois , Indiana , Kansas , Kentucky , Louisiana , Massachusetts , Maryland , Maine , Michigan , Minnesota , Missouri , Mississippi , Montana , North Carolina , North Dakota , Nebraska , New Hampshire , New Jersey , New Mexico , Nevada , New York , Ohio , Oklahoma , Oregon , Pennsylvania , Rhode Island , South Carolina , South Dakota , Tennessee , Texas , Utah , Virginia , Vermont , Washington , Wisconsin , West Virginia , more.. Drug Rehab Treatment Centers Alaska , Alabama , Arkansas , Arizona , California , Colorado , Connecticut , District of Columbia , Delaware , Florida , Georgia , Hawaii , Iowa , Idaho , Illinois , Indiana , Kansas , Kentucky , Louisiana , Massachusetts , Maryland , Maine , Michigan , Minnesota , Mississippi , Montana , North Carolina , North Dakota , Nebraska , New Hampshire , New Jersey , New Mexico , Nevada , New York , Ohio , Oklahoma , Oregon , Pennsylvania , Rhode Island , South Carolina , South Dakota , Tennessee , Texas , Utah , Virginia , Vermont , Washington , Wisconsin , West Virginia , Wyoming Inpatient Drug Rehab Centers Alaska , Arkansas , Arizona , California , Colorado , Connecticut , District of Columbia , Delaware , Florida , Georgia , Hawaii , Iowa , Idaho , Illinois , Indiana , Kansas , Kentucky , Louisiana , Massachusetts , Maryland , Maine , Michigan , Minnesota , Mississippi , Montana , North Dakota , North Carolina , Nebraska , New Hampshire , New Jersey , New Mexico , Nevada , New York , Ohio , Oklahoma , Alabama
Drug rehabilitation is a multi-phase, multi-faceted, long term process. Detoxification is only the first
step on the road of addiction treatment. Physical detoxification alone is not sufficient to change
the patterns of a drug addict. Recovery from addiction involves an extended process which usually
requires the help of drug addiction professionals. To make a successful recovery, the addict needs new
tools in order to deal with situations and problems which arise. Factors such as encountering someone
from their days of using, returning to the same environment and places, or even small things such as
smells and objects trigger memories which can create psychological stress. This can hinder the addict's
goal of complete recovery, thus not allowing the addict to permanently regain control of his or her life.
lmost all addicts tell themselves in the beginning that they can conquer their addiction on their own
without the help of outside resources. Unfortunately, this is not usually the case.
When an addict makes an attempt at detoxification and to discontinue
drug use without the aid of professional help, statistically the results do not last long. Research into the
effects of long-term addiction has shown that substantial changes in the way the brain functions are present
long after the addict has stopped using drugs. Realizing that a drug addict who wishes to recover from their
addiction needs more than just strong will power is the key to a successful recovery. Battling not only cravings
for their drug of choice, re-stimulation of their past and changes in the way their brain functions, it is no
wonder that quitting drugs without professional help is an uphill battle. A
As an organization we are dedicated to finding the correct solution for your specific addiction problem. Our referral list
contains over 16,000 resources which encompass the following treatment categories :
Drug Rehab and Intervention
Drug rehab and intervention go hand in hand if the addict is unwilling. An intervention is when a group of loved ones and/or a trained intervention counselor meets with the person in need of help for the purpose of breaking down their denial circuit and motivating them to immediately seek drug treatment. Often, individuals in the midst of drug addiction engage in a variety of self destructive behaviors. Although baffling to friends and family members such people generally either are not aware on a conscious level that they have a drug addiction problem, or even when they know they have a problem they may cling to the false belief that the problem will somehow go away all by itself without any outside help. When an intervention is held, a moment of clarity is created for the addict. Most people struggling with the problem of drug or alcohol addiction will accept help the very day of the intervention.
The idea behind an intervention is not new. The formal process has been in use for over 30 years. Many of us have experienced a time when others have rallied round to help us in a time of need. Examples may include childhood, the work place, or in a relationship. It was at some key point where we realized that others were there coaching us and helping us to make the right decisions. These specific moments became turning points in our lives, enabling us to see things in a different light and recognize opportunities we did not know existed before.
The process of conducting a drug intervention can be a difficult and delicate matter without and intervention professional. It is important that it is done correctly; otherwise the individual may feel cornered and become defensive. Advice from a trained professional is useful in determining the proper strategy and timing for your specific drug intervention and drug treatment option. It is understandable that the decision to plan a drug or alcohol intervention for a friend or loved one may be accompanied with feelings of apprehension. Many times there is an underlying deep fear. This may be a fear of confrontation, fear of rejection, and/or a fear that it won't work. Leaving loved ones with only more intensified feelings of hopelessness, anger, and frustration, while the addict continues their self-destructive actions. These feelings will diminish with advice, education and direction from a intervention professional.
Drug rehab and intervention does not have to take place when the individual in need has hit their personal “rock bottom”. Often, an intervention specialist can carefully plan an effective drug intervention before “rock bottom”. This can be the key component that helps the individual go from the downward spiral of drug addiction and on to the road of recovery. Keep in mind, no matter what occurs on the drug intervention day; it will most certainly get the person's attention. If the person refuses to do what is requested, he/she nearly almost always changes for the better in some way, usually by accepting some form of help later: either later that same day, the next day, the next week, or in the next month or two.
Drug rehabs ranges from low levels of participation such as outpatient treatment. This form of treatment is where the individual attends meetings and does not change many areas of their day to day life while receiving drug addiction treatment. The other end of the spectrum would be residential or inpatient drug treatment. This form of drug rehabilitation is much more intensive for the recovering drug user. The individual stays at the drug treatment facility while receiving care and is given support and guidance twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.
A drug rehab and intervention can help in developing a personalized plan of action. They can help your friend, coworker or loved one get their lives back in order and overcome drug or alcohol addiction. Effective drug rehabs will see the addict through the treatment process and beyond.
Drug Rehab What to Expect
Drug rehab, What can I expect? It is different for each person who attends. Drug detoxification (withdrawal) is often the first step towards recovery. Some programs offer detox on-site while others will have you attend medical detox and then return to complete the drug rehab program when the detox is complete. Either way, the person in recovery must withdrawal from drugs and/or alcohol which will be made more comfortable by the drug treatment center than the person could achieve on their own as without professional help, withdrawal can be very uncomfortable without treatment for it.
Withdrawal is when a person who is addicted to drugs or alcohol discontinues use. There are numerous symptoms that take place both physically and emotionally when an addicted individual stops using. Withdrawal can last a few days to a few weeks and may include nausea or vomiting, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety. These symptoms are reduced effectively with a detox program
For some, drug detox is the hardest part of rehab. Others find that several weeks into treatment they begin to experience cravings for their drug of choice. These cravings can be described as a “hunger” for drugs and can continue for months after the individual has quit using. Scientists have discovered evidence that these cravings may be partly a physiological phenomenon, related to the long-term changes in brain function that addiction causes. Now accustomed to functioning in the presence of drugs, the addicted brain, in essence, has become unable to function normally in their absence. This manifestation of drug addiction can be resolved with a long term treatment approach (3 months or longer) This effectively give the central nervous system time to readjust to the drug free state that once existed before the consuming of drugs began.
It is not uncommon for recovering individuals to experience drug using dreams. As hard as these using dreams may be, they can be used as a tool. They can remind the individual how far they have come in their recovery process and how many problems in their life were caused by their using. Recovery from drug addiction takes time and dedication. As each day goes by, the cravings, using dreams, and the uncertainties of complete recovery from drug addiction will diminish.
The goal of drug rehab is to return the individual to productive functioning in the family, workplace, and community. While in drug rehab, recovering people can expect to learn about addiction, recovery and relapse. They will address misguided beliefs about themselves and others as well as make positive changes in their life. Drug rehabilitation also includes acquiring coping tools as well as drug refusal skills. These tools and skills will help them to identify relapse warning signs and challenge thoughts that could lead to relapse.
Once one has completed a drug rehab program, they should feel that they can be a valuable and productive member of society again. It is important for the recovered individual to understand that it is their responsibility to remain sober and that if there is a relapse that does not mean that they give in completely. Successful programs believe that the ability to accomplish a complete recovery from drug addiction must be based on the belief that an individual is not powerless, and in fact, must take responsibility for his or her own actions.
Drug Rehab and Detoxification
Drug rehab and detoxification is the key to making a successful recovery from drug and alcohol addiction. Drug detoxification and rehab professionals will assist the individual through detox and withdrawal symptoms from drugs in addition to improving their ability to function in society again without the use of drugs or alcohol.
Nearly all addicts believe they can stop using drugs on their own in the beginning, and most try to stop without treatment. However, most of these attempts result in failure to achieve long-term abstinence. Research has shown that long-term drug addiction causes significant changes in brain function that can persist for months after the individual stops using drugs. These drug-induced changes in brain function have many behavioral consequences. These consequences include the compulsion to use drugs despite adverse physical and social effects to the user and loved ones, which is a defining characteristic of drug and alcohol addiction.
Until a person is physically stabilized though detoxification, they are not physically or psychologically prepared to participate in a drug rehab program. The actual stopping of drinking alcohol or using drugs, results in what is known as withdrawal. Detoxification (withdrawal) without medical supervision and assistance is potentially very dangerous and should not be attempted.
Detoxification is sometimes thought of as all that is needed for recovery. However, this is a misconception because detox only rids the user’s body of drug withdrawal symptoms, as mentioned above. It does not address their psychological issues that lead them to using drugs in the first place. Drug rehab and detoxification work best when they are done in conjunction with one another.
The length of time required for drug rehab and detoxification dependent upon the individual and the type of drugs they have been taking. In general, detoxification can take between 3 and 7 days. The medical process of detox usually includes administering a variety of substances to relieve the withdrawal symptoms and minimize the potentially harmful consequences.
Once detoxification has been completed the individual would then enter a drug treatment program. Research has shown that significant improvement takes place for those who remain in treatment for a minimum of three months. After this point is reached, additional treatment can produce further progress toward recovery. There are no quick fixes for a long term drug addiction and alcoholism.
The treatment and knowledge one gains in a drug rehabilitation program must be integrated into everyday life and this can take time. The key to a successful outcome is to not have any agenda on time. It takes as long as it take. After all, a person does not become an addict over night so conversely it cannot usually be undone over night. It is vital to get what is being said here or rehab can become a revolving door year after year and it does not have to be that way if you first find a highly successful drug treatment center and dedicate yourself to the therapy offered, chances are you will make it and have the life you have been longing for if you do.
Drug Rehab Dealing with Pain and Guilt
Dealing with pain and guilt is an important process for any recovering person to address and resolve in a drug rehab program. Often, they will attempt to ignore their emotions and not confront the consequences of their actions. Whether the pain and guilt they are feeling is towards themselves or if they have hurt someone they care about.
There are many reasons why people fall into a pattern of self-destruction. There is no clear cut explanation why, one person stumbles and another avoids addiction. One individual may be born with a weakness for alcohol while another may have a natural dislike for intoxicants.
Somewhere at the core of all addictive behavior is the way people deal with temptation. In most cases, the destructive process is hidden from the person undergoing the transformation. No one typically says, "I think I'll slowly waste away my life." A more likely statement people end up making is, "How on earth did I get into this mess?"
In general, most addicts are good people. It is the crippling manifestation, psycologically and physiologically, of drug addiction that alters their normal behavior patterns as become a chemical personality decaying their ethics and morals. The most common statement heard in the drug rehab field is "He or she was such a wonderful person before they started using drugs".
That person is still there buried in the nightmare of chemical addiction, be it drugs or alcohol. A successful drug rehab center will help the individual dealing with pain and guilt to reacquire the ethics and morals that once natively existed before drug abuse entered into their lives. It is the responsibility of the treatment program to restore the individual to their former self, before they started using drugs, and to locate and resolve underlying issues leadind to drug abuse in the first place.
There is no easy answer for people seeking to dig themselves out of the hole they find themselves in regarding addiction. It took time for them to get their life into a mess; it will take time to put their world back into some working order.
Recovery starts with a realization of life's core values. Those who are involved with drugs often begin drug rehabilitation dealing with pain and guilt. They have finally reached a personal understanding that their habit is morally wrong. They say, “I shouldn’t be messing with this stuff.” The most chronic drug users tend to be people who lack a strong moral foundation.
The next step of dealing with pain and guilt involves accepting, understanding and releasing negative feelings. Because hostility can be a major obstacle to healing, it is very important for people in recovery to make amends with their friends, family, and--most importantly--themselves.
The final step is one that never ends. Once people decide to turn their lives around, they need to take a continual inventory of life. If they stumble, it's important for them to admit to the error and quickly get back up.
Drug Rehab and Treatment Philosophies
Drug rehab and treatment philosophies are two very important parts of an individual’s recovery process. There are several different schools of thought when it comes to how different drug rehabs view drug addiction and alcoholism. Some professionals in the drug rehabilitation field feel that drug addiction is a "neurological disease". In terms of recovery, these drug rehab professionals believe that drug addiction is a disease and while it may go into remission, the individual will never fully recover.
On the other hand, there are professionals in the drug rehab field who base their treatment philosophies on the understanding that people use drugs and alcohol as a means of escape. Some of the underlying causes may include but are not restricted to: grief, trauma, low self esteem, and codependency. It is believed that though understanding and working on the underlying causes of the individual’s drug use, complete and total recovery from drug addiction can be accomplished.
There are many different types of drug rehab and treatment philosophies available to those looking to recover from drug addiction. These consist of residential therapy, drug-free outpatient therapy, residential therapeutic community treatment, drug rehabilitaion centers, alcohol rehab, drug treatment programs, long term treatment (3 months or longer) short term treatment (30 days or less), meetings, support groups, counseling. Each type of drug treatment setting mentioned is commonly associated with a particular approach to drug addiction recovery. It is important that the individual who is looking for help feel comfortable and understand the treatment philosophies of the facility they choose.
The treatment method chosen should be based on the severity of the individual’s drug addiction. For those who are not "heavily" addicted to drugs or alcohol a less intensive treatment approach, such as outpatient drug treatment may be all that is needed. Those who are severely addicted or have abused drugs or alcohol for an extended period of time often find that a lon term treatment program with a more structured treatment environment works best. These people will do best if they attend a drug rehab that is inpatient based. Drug addiction is a problem that affects almost every aspect of the user's life. Severely addicted individual's should be completely removed from their drug using enviornment, that alone can be half the battle
With this in mind, finding a treatment program that is all encompassing is important. Drug rehab and treatment philosophies that incorporate relapse prevention skills as part of their rehabilitation often times are backed by a solid recovery program. Relapse prevention skils are critical for the addict to remain clean once then have left the treatment facility.
Even though there are numerous different types of drug rehab and treatment philosophies, too few include ways to keep the individual in rehab, teach them skills to handle life once they complete the treatment program and counseling to help understand and resolve the underlying issues which lead to their drug abuse problem. The knowledge and life skills aquired in a drug rehab center must be integrated into their everyday life, and this takes time, anyone can lead a productive and drug abuse free life.
Drug Rehab Statistics
Drug rehab statistics relates to numerous areas of drug addiction and rehabilitation. Drug addiction is a complex but treatable problem. It is characterized by compulsive drug craving, seeking, and use that persist even in the face of severe adverse consequences. For many people, drug addiction becomes chronic, with relapses possible even after long periods of abstinence. As a chronic, recurring problem, addiction may require repeated treatments to increase the intervals between relapses and diminish their intensity, until abstinence is achieved. Through treatment tailored to individual needs, people with drug addiction problems can recover and lead productive lives.
The ultimate goal of drug rehab is to enable an individual to achieve lasting abstinence, but the immediate goal are to cease all drug use, improve the individual’s ability to function, and minimize the medical and social complications of drug abuse and addiction. People in a drug treatment program for drug addiction will need to change their behavior to adopt a more healthful lifestyle.
Drug rehab statistics show that in 2004, approximately 22.5 million Americans aged 12 or older needed to enter drug rehab for substance (alcohol or illicit drug) abuse and addiction. Of these, only 3.8 million people received it.
Untreated substance abuse and addiction add significant costs to families and communities, including those related to violence and property crimes, prison expenses, court and criminal costs, emergency room visits, healthcare utilization, child abuse and neglect, lost child support, foster care and welfare costs, reduced productivity, and unemployment.
The latest drug rehab statistics estimate the costs to society of illicit drug abuse alone is $181 billion (2002). When combined with alcohol and tobacco costs, they exceed $500 billion including healthcare, criminal justice, and lost productivity. Successful drug rehab programs can help reduce this cost by cutting down on crime and the spread of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases.
Further information on drug rehab statistics estimate that for every dollar spent on addiction treatment programs, there is a $4 to $7 reduction in the cost of drug-related crimes. With some outpatient programs, total savings can exceed costs by a ratio of 12:1. With a ratio like that, it is amazing the percentage of teenagers reported to be victims of drug abuse. There were 2.3 million youth between the ages of 12 to 17 who were found to need treatment for alcohol or other illicit drug abuse. Only 8.2 percent of these youths received any drug treatment help. An increased use of illegal substances such as cocaine, heroin, and other drugs among the youth is also observed.
Drug Rehab Primary Focus
The primary purpose of a drug rehab program to achieve is to eventually achieve a stable and permanent recovery from addiction. Recovery from drug addiction is possible regardless of the type of drug or the length of abuse with the help of of a proven high success treatment program. The typical success rate of drug treatment is 2% to 20% yet there are treatment programs with success rates exceeding 70%. When an individual enrolls into a drug rehabilitation center, they are attending a program that will help them detox, through proven scientific knowledge and education regarding alcohol and drug addiction an individual aquires tools they need to stop using drugs and to remain drug free once they have completed the program, and have a different outlook toward life and the roll that they play in it. Ideally, a drug rehab not only helps the individual with their problems pertaining to drugs or alcohol, but also addresses the underlying issues that lead to their addiction in the first place.
Many drug rehab centers primary focus is to incorporate some type of behavior modification into their program. This is beneficial for the recovering drug user because it helps them to replace their old drug using habits with new healthy ones they can use once they have completed treatment.
The appropriate duration for an individual in drug rehab depends on his or her problems and needs. Research indicates that for most, the threshold of significant improvement is reached at about 3 months in treatment. After this point is reached, additional treatment can produce further progress toward recovery. There are no quick fixes for drug addiction.
Recovery is an ongoing process. For the individual the knowledge one learns at a drug rehab program and the dedicated application of that knowledge should be their primary focus and must be integrated into their everyday life. This takes time. Successful programs believe that the ability to accomplish a complete recovery from drug addiction must be based on the belief that an individual is not a victim, and in fact, must take responsibility for his or her own actions.
Drug Rehab Centers
There are so many drug rehab centers to choose from, it can be a daunting task to decide which one will be best for you or for someone you care about. The best way to find out about a particular treatment center is to call and talk to a counselor or another member of their staff. While doing initial research online is a great idea, talking to someone on the phone or face to face can make you feel more comfortable with making your final selection.
When you are talking to different drug rehab centers, ask as many questions as you can think of. Some ideas of questions you should ask are the following: How many addicted individuals are housed at the center? Will there be personal treatment attention for each individual based on that individual's specific needs, or will all treatment be done in a group setting? How stringent is security in regards to bringing in drugs or leaving the facility? Are there drug tests involved? What additional activities are offered besides detox and counseling? What is the center's overall philosophy about treatment?
Sometimes a drug rehabilitation center can put you in touch with graduates or parents of graduates of their program. This can be a valuable resource because they will be able to give you a first-hand account of what life is like in that particular drug rehab center. They can also give insight into the treatment process itself and how they are succeeding with their own recovery. If the center gives you this option, take it.
If you are looking for a rehab facility for a family member, you should also inquire about family participation. As you know, addiction does not only affect the addict; it affects the whole family. It is a good idea to seek advise as a family, even if a particular facility doesn't offer it as part of the therapy.
Drug rehab centers (often drug rehab or just rehab) is an umbrella term for the processes of medical and alcohol or drug addiction treatment, for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or meth. The ultimate goal of a drug rehab is to enable the individual to achieve lasting abstinence from drug use. The short term goal is to help the individual through detox and withdrawal from drugs in addition to improving their ability to function well life again.
Often part of bigger mental health care programs, drug rehab centers offers the possibility to people who have trouble kicking the habit at home, to do it under 'easier' circumstances. The addict may not have enough motivation to quit in their home situation, or they receive little support from the people around them to be treated on an outpatient bases.
Drug rehab centers tend to address a stated twofold nature of drug addiction: physical and psychological dependency. Physical dependency involves a detoxification process to cope with withdrawal symptoms from regular use of a drug. With regular use of many drugs, legal or otherwise, the brain gradually adapts to the presence of the drug so that the desired effect is minimal. Apparently normal functioning of the user may be observed, despite being under the influence of the drug. This is how physical tolerance develops to drugs such as heroin, amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine or alcohol. It also explains why more of the drug is needed to get the same effect with regular use. The abrupt cessation of taking a drug can lead to withdrawal symptoms where the body may take weeks or months (depending on the drug involved) to return to normal.
Receiving treatment at drug rehab centers offers an alcohol and drug free environment in which individual treatment can take place. Every program has its own methods of treatment, but in general much attention is given to the recovering individual, to return to their home drug free and will the knowledge, skills and ability to remain so.
Drug Rehab Cost
Drug rehab cost can vary greatly based on what type of rehab one attends as well as the quality of service and length of time a person remains in treatment. The price tag for drug abuse and alcoholism treatment is presented in many different formats. You need to know what is included, what will be added to your bill as a fee-for-service treatment program, and what services your health insurance may or may not cover. This makes it extremely difficult to compare prices by simply asking the question - "What does drug rehab cost?" If you are seeking the best value for your treatment dollar, remember: price can be meaningful only in the context of quality and performance.
When wanting to know the cost of drug rehabilitation, recovering from drug addiction is often a multi-faceted, multi-phase, long term process for those addressing an extended duration and acute alcohol or drug addiction problem. For many, attending a long term drug rehabilitation program is the solution to achieving recovery from drug and alcohol addiction. The first step to recovering from drug addiction is detoxification. It is important to know, physical detoxification alone is not enough to help an individual make a complete recovery. This is where drug treatment cost plays a large part. Programs that offer both detox as well as drug treatment“in house” are often well worth the expense.
A drug rehab center will provide a recovering addict with new understanding, knowledge and skils to remain clean. These include strategies for when they return home and encounter someone from their days of using drugs or alcohol. As well as ways to handle returning to their same drug or alcohol using environment and places where there are reminders and activities from their past using days. These items can conjure up memories which can produce psychological stress. These psychological stressors often hinder a recovering addict making it very difficult for them to feel as though they have control over their life, this is where the knowledge and skills aquired in treatment can tip the scale in favor of the individual confronted with such situations, and they are able to make the correct decision.
In the beginning, most addicts feel as though they can conquer their drug or alcohol addiction on their own. However, usually without professional treatment their attempts often fail. Statistically, when an individual attempts to end their addiction without professional help their results are not long lasting, that is simply an unfortunate fact. This is because research into the brain of drug addicts show changes in the way their brain functions for months after they have discontinued use of drugs or alcohol. It can take months for brain function to return to normal. This is one of the main reason's why even an individual with the strongest will power regarding other areas of life may find it extremely difficult to end their addiction without help from professionals. With so many obstacles such as drug cravings, drug induced depression, guilt and changes in the way their brain functions it is no surprise why so many people attend a drug rehab program each year so they can get a fair chance to successfully recover from addiction.
History of Drug Rehab
The history of drug rehab originates from the history of drug addiction. Drug use and abuse is as old as mankind itself. Human beings have always had a desire to eat or drink substances that make them feel relaxed, stimulated, or euphoric. Humans have used drugs of one sort or another for thousands of years.
In the 1930s most states required anti-drug education in the schools, but fears that knowledge would lead to experimentation caused it to be abandoned in most places. Soon after the repeal of Prohibition, the U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics (now the Drug Enforcement Administration) began a campaign to portray marijuana as a powerful, addicting substance that would lead users into narcotics addiction. In the 1950s, use of marijuana increased again, along with that of amphetamines and tranquilizers.
Throughout the years, the public's perception of the dangers of specific substances changed. The surgeon general's warning label on tobacco packaging gradually made people aware of the addictive nature of nicotine. By 1995, the Food and Drug Administration was considering its regulation. The recognition of fetal alcohol syndrome brought warning labels to alcohol products. The addictive nature of prescription drugs such as diazepam (Valium) became known, and caffeine came under scrutiny as well.
Drug laws have tried to keep up with the changing perceptions and real dangers of substance abuse. By 1970 over 55 federal drug laws and countless state laws specified a variety of punitive measures, including life imprisonment and even the death penalty. To clarify the situation, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 repealed, replaced, or updated all previous federal laws concerned with narcotics and all other dangerous drugs. While possession was made illegal, the severest penalties were reserved for illicit distribution and manufacture of drugs. The act dealt with prevention and treatment of drug abuse as well as control of drug traffic. The Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988 increased funding for treatment and rehabilitation; the 1988 act created the Office of National Drug Control Policy. Its director, often referred to as the drug "czar, " is responsible for coordinating national drug control policy.
The History of Drug Rehab: Disease Model and Twelve-Step Programs
The disease model of addiction has long contended the maladaptive patterns of alcohol and substance use displayed by addicted individuals are the result of a lifelong disease that is biological in origin and exacerbated by environmental contingencies. This conceptualization renders the individual essentially powerless over his or her problematic behaviors and unable to remain sober by himself or herself, much as individuals with a terminal illness are unable to fight the disease by themselves without medication. Behavioral treatment, therefore, necessarily requires individuals to admit their addiction, renounce their former lifestyle, and seek a supportive social network who can help them remain sober. Such approaches are the quintessential features of Twelve-step programs, originally published in the book Alcoholics Anonymous in 1939. These approaches have met considerable amounts of criticism, coming from opponents who disapprove of the spiritual-religious orientation on both psychological and legal grounds.
The History of Drug Rehab: Client-Centered Approaches
In his influential book, Client-Centered Therapy, in which he presented the client-centered approach to therapeutic change, psychologist Carl Rogers proposed there are three necessary and sufficient conditions for personal change: unconditional positive regard, accurate empathy, and genuineness. Rogers believed the presence of these three items in the therapeutic relationship could help an individual overcome any troublesome issue, including alcohol abuse.
The History of Drug Rehab: Relapse Prevention
An influential cognitive-behavioral approach to addiction recovery and therapy has been Alan Marlatt’s (1985) Relapse Prevention approach. Marlatt describes four psychosocial processes relevant to the addiction and relapse processes: self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, attributions of causality, and decision-making processes. Self-efficacy refers to one’s ability to deal competently and effectively with high-risk, relapse-provoking situations. Outcome expectancies refer to an individual’s expectations about the psychoactive effects of an addictive substance. Attributions of causality refer to an individual’s pattern of beliefs relapse to drug use is a result of internal, or rather external, transient causes. Finally, decision-making processes are implicated in the relapse process as well. Substance use is the result of multiple decisions whose collective effects result in consumption of the intoxicant. Furthermore, Marlatt stresses some decisions—referred to as apparently irrelevant decisions—may seem inconsequential to relapse, but may actually have downstream implications that place the user in a high-risk situation.
The History of Drug Rehab: Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse
An additional cognitively-based model of substance abuse recovery has been offered by Aaron Beck, the father of cognitive therapy and championed in his 1993 book, Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse. This therapy rests upon the assumption addicted individuals possess core beliefs, oftentimes not accessible to immediate consciousness (unless the patient is also depressed). These core beliefs, such as “I am undesirable,” activate a system of addictive beliefs that result in imagined anticipatory benefits of substance use and, consequentially, craving. Once craving has been activated, permissive beliefs (“I can handle getting high just this one more time”) are facilitated. Once a permissive set of beliefs have been activated, then the individual will activate drug-seeking and drug-ingesting behaviors. The cognitive therapist’s job is to uncover this underlying system of beliefs, analyze it with the patient, and thereby demonstrate its dysfunctionality. As with any cognitive-behavioral therapy, homework assignments and behavioral exercises serve to solidify what is learned and discussed during treatment.
The History of Drug Rehab: Emotion Regulation, Mindfulness, and Substance Abuse
A growing literature is demonstrating the importance of emotion regulation in the treatment of substance abuse. For the sake of conceptual uniformity, this section uses the tobacco cessation as the chief example; however, since nicotine and other psychoactive substances such as cocaine activate similar psychopharmacological pathways, an emotion regulation approach may be similarly applicable to a wider array of substances of abuse. Proposed models of affect-driven tobacco use have focused on negative reinforcement as the primary driving force for addiction; according to such theories, tobacco is used because it helps one escape from the undesirable effects of nicotine withdrawal or other negative moods. Currently, research is being conducted to determine the efficacy of mindfulness based approaches to smoking cessation, in which patients are encouraged to identify and recognize their negative emotional states and prevent the maladaptive, impulsive/compulsive responses they have developed to deal with them (such as cigarette smoking or other substance use).
Below are short descriptions of the many different types of drug rehabs. Now that you know the history of drug rehab it will make choosing the appropriate one for you or a loved one that much easier.
In Patient- In patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation is a more intensive process than others. The recovering addict lives on location at the drug rehab facility. This gives structure and support to provide long term recovery from drug and alcohol addiction. For many, inpatient treatment seems to be a last resort, a place to go when all else fails. In reality, inpatient drug rehab offers a place of hope and rejuvenation, a place where miracles happen and lives begin to make sense again.
Out Patient- Out patient treatment can offer a tremendous amount of support for those who need help and have a brief history of drug or alcohol addiction. This form of treatment encompasses a wide variety of programs for patients including individual or group counseling. The recovering addict meets at a center on a regular scheduled basis but does not live on location such as in the in patient treatment programs. The ultimate goal is to provide long lasting abstinence and the ability to function in the day to day world.
Sober Living- Alcohol- and drug-free houses (also known as sober living) play an important role in supporting treatment and recovery services in a community by helping recovering persons to maintain an alcohol- and drug-free lifestyle. What is important about these houses is that all have three things in common. First, they make sure that a person who is in recovery lives in a place that is free from alcohol and drug use. Second, the residents themselves reinforce their recovery through support with other recovering persons. Finally, the residents are free to voluntarily pursue activities to support their recovery, either alone or with others.
Halfway Houses- These houses offer chemically dependent men and women a carefully planned program of challenges and growth experiences the goal of which is a lasting, satisfying recovery. Halfway houses continue the work begun during the resident's previous treatment experiences - building on that foundation, reviewing work that might have been missed, and moving toward a new level of understanding and commitment. The drug treatment industry adopted the term halfway house and began setting up or supporting independent halfway houses as a way for the newly discharged client to establish roots, secure gainful employment, stay connected with the treatment center and NOT return to a life of drug use. Halfway houses usually have strict guidelines for all residents, including curfews and mandatory, random drug testing. These facilities are for-profit, non-profit and not-for-profit companies.
Counseling- Counseling (individual and/or group) and other behavioral therapies are critical components of effective treatment for addiction. It is considered to be a time-limited approach to drug recovery. In counseling, patients address issues of motivation, build skills to resist drug use, replace drug-using activities with constructive and rewarding non drug-using activities, and improve problem-solving abilities. Behavioral therapy also facilitates interpersonal relationships and the individual's ability to function in the family and community.
Meetings- Don't feel alone anymore. Meetings are a great way to share your experiences on recovery and can add hope and happiness to your life. The two most common kinds of meetings are open meetings and closed meetings. Open meetings, as the term suggests are open to recovering drug addicts, their families, and their friends. A closed meeting is limited to those recovering from drugs or alcohol only. They provide an opportunity for those recovering to share with one another problems related to drug abuse patterns and attempts to achieve stable sobriety.